The Evolution Deceit

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Art And Architecture According To The Torah

Gold Veneer

... He [Solomon] overlaid the inside with pure gold. (2 Chronicles, 3:4)

He paneled the main hall with pine and covered it with fine gold and decorated it with palm tree and chain designs. (2 Chronicles, 3:5)

He overlaid the ceiling beams, doorframes, walls and doors of the house with gold... (2 Chronicles, 3:7)

He also made two pine doors, each having two leaves that turned in sockets. He carved cherubim, palm trees and open flowers on them and overlaid them with gold hammered evenly over the carvings. (1 Kings, 6:34-35)

Then the king [Solomon] made a great throne inlaid with ivory and overlaid with fine gold. (1 Kings, 10:18)

They overlaid the frames with gold and made gold rings to hold the crossbars. They also overlaid the crossbars with gold... They made four posts of acacia wood for it and overlaid them with gold. They made gold hooks for them and cast their four silver bases. For the entrance to the tent they made a curtain of blue, purple and scarlet yarn and finely twisted linen—the work of an embroiderer; and they made five posts with hooks for them. They overlaid the tops of the posts and their bands with gold and made their five bases of bronze. (Exodus, 36:34-38)

Have them make a chest of acacia wood... Overlay it with pure gold, both inside and out... Then make poles of acacia wood and overlay them with gold. (Exodus, 25:10-13

Make a table of acacia wood—two cubits1 long, a cubit wide and a cubit and a half high. Overlay it with pure gold and make a gold molding around it. (Exodus, 25:23-24)

Make the poles of acacia wood, overlay them with gold and carry the table with them. (Exodus, 25:28)

Overlay the frames with gold and make gold rings to hold the crossbars. Also overlay the crossbars with gold. (Exodus, 26:29)

Make gold hooks for this curtain and five posts of acacia wood overlaid with gold. And cast five bronze bases for them. (Exodus, 26:37)

He overlaid it with pure gold, both inside and out, and made a gold molding around it. He cast four gold rings for it and fastened them to its four feet, with two rings on one side and two rings on the other. Then he made poles of acacia wood and overlaid them with gold. (Exodus, 37:2-4)

Then they overlaid it with pure gold and made a gold molding around it. (Exodus, 37:11)

The poles for carrying the table were made of acacia wood and were overlaid with gold. (Exodus, 37:15)

Timber Panelling

So he built the house, and finished it; and he covered the house with beams and planks of cedar. (1 Kings, 6:9)

He built the walls of the house within with boards of cedar: from the floor of the house to the walls of the ceiling, he covered them on the inside with wood; and he covered the floor of the house with boards of fir. (1 Kings, 6:15)

And he built twenty cubits on the sides of the house, both the floor and the walls with boards of cedar. (1 Kings, 6:16)

There was cedar on the house within, carved with buds and open flowers: all was cedar; there was no stone seen. (1 Kings, 6:18)

The inmost place was twenty cubits long, twenty wide and twenty high. He overlaid the inside with pure gold, and he also overlaid the altar of cedar. (1 Kings, 6:20)

And he built the inner courtyard of three courses of dressed stone and one course of trimmed cedar beams. (1 Kings, 6:36)

He built the throne hall, the Hall of Justice, where he was to judge, and he covered it with cedar from floor to ceiling. (1 Kings, 7:7)

The Art of Carving and Relief Work

For the entrance of the oracle he made doors of olive-wood: the lintel and door-posts were a fifth part of the wall. And on the two olive wood doors he carved cherubim, palm trees and open flowers... (1 Kings, 6:31-32)

The inside of the house was cedar, carved with gourds and open flowers. Everything was cedar; no stone was to be seen. (1 Kings, 6:18)

In the same way he made four-sided jambs of olive wood for the entrance to the main hall. He also made two pine doors, each having two leaves that turned in sockets. He carved... palm trees and open flowers on them and overlaid them with gold hammered evenly over the carvings. (1 Kings, 6:33-35)

So that the face of a man was towards the palm-tree on the one side, and the face of a young lion towards the palm-tree on the other side... From the ground to above the door were cherubim and palm-trees made, and on the wall of the house... Both the outer house and the Most Holy Place had double doors.... And on the doors... were carved cherubim and palm trees like those carved on the walls, and there was a wooden overhang on the front of the portico. On the sidewalls of the portico were narrow windows with palm trees carved on each side. The side rooms... also had overhangs. (Ezekiel, 41:19-26)

... Every precious stone adorned you: ruby, topaz and emerald, chrysolite, onyx and jasper, sapphire, turquoise and beryl. Your settings and mountings were made of gold; on the day you were created they were prepared. (Ezekiel, 28:13)

... to cut and set stones, to work in wood, and to engage in all kinds of craftsmanship. (Exodus, 31:5)

... and onyx stones and other gems to be mounted on the ephod and breastpiece. (Exodus, 25:7)

The Use of Decorative Plant Motifs

And on the lampstand were four cups shaped like almond flowers with buds and blossoms. (Exodus, 37:20)

They made the lampstand of pure gold and hammered it out, base and shaft; its flowerlike cups, buds and blossoms were of one piece with it. Six branches extended from the sides of the lampstand—three on one side and three on the other. Three cups shaped like almond flowers with buds and blossoms were on one branch, three on the next branch and the same for all six branches extending from the lampstand. (Exodus, 37:17-19)

This is how the lampstand was made: It was made of hammered gold—from its base to its blossoms. The lampstand was made exactly like the pattern the Lord had shown Moses. (Numbers, 8:4)

Make a lampstand of pure gold and hammer it out, base and shaft; its flowerlike cups, buds and blossoms shall be of one piece with it. Six branches are to extend from the sides of the lampstand—three on one side and three on the other. Three cups shaped like almond flowers with buds and blossoms are to be on one branch, three on the next branch, and the same for all six branches extending from the lampstand. And on the lampstand there are to be four cups shaped like almond flowers with buds and blossoms. (Exodus, 25:31-34)

They made pomegranates of blue, purple and scarlet yarn and finely twisted linen around the hem of the robe. (Exodus, 39:24)

A network of interwoven chains festooned the capitals on top of the pillars, seven for each capital. He made pomegranates in two rows encircling each network to decorate the capitals on top of the pillars... The capitals on top of the pillars in the portico were in the shape of lilies, four cubits high. On the capitals of both pillars, above the bowl-shaped part next to the network, were the two hundred pomegranates in rows all around. (1 Kings, 7:17-20)

The four hundred pomegranates for the two sets of network, two rows of pomegranates for each network, decorating the bowl-shaped capitals on top of the pillars. (1 Kings, 7:42)

Below the rim, gourds encircled it—ten to a cubit. The gourds were cast in two rows in one piece with the Sea. (1 Kings, 7:24)

The inside of the house was cedar, carved with gourds and open flowers. Everything was cedar; no stone was to be seen. (1 Kings, 6:18)

He carved all the walls of the house round about with carved figures of cherubim and palm-trees and open flowers, inside and outside... And on the two olive wood doors he carved cherubim, palm trees and open flowers, and overlaid the cherubim and palm trees with beaten gold. (1 Kings, 6:29-35)

He paneled the main hall with pine and covered it with fine gold and decorated it with palm tree and chain designs. (2 Chronicles, 3:5)

He made interwoven chains and put them on top of the pillars. He also made a hundred pomegranates and attached them to the chains. (2 Chronicles, 3:16)

...the two pillars; the two bowl-shaped capitals on top of the pillars; the two sets of network decorating the two bowl-shaped capitals on top of the pillars. And the four hundred pomegranates for the two networks; two rows of pomegranates for each network, to cover the two bowls of the capitals that were on the pillars. (2 Chronicles, 4:12-13)

Each of the pillars was eighteen cubits high... The bronze capital on top of the one pillar was five cubits high and was decorated with a network and pomegranates of bronze all around. The other pillar, with its pomegranates, was similar. (Jeremiah, 52:21-22)

There were ninety-six pomegranates on the sides; the total number of pomegranates above the surrounding network was a hundred. (Jeremiah, 52:23)

The alcoves and the projecting walls inside the gateway were surmounted by narrow parapet openings all around, as was the portico; the openings all around faced inward. The faces of the projecting walls were decorated with palm trees. (Ezekiel, 40:16)

Its openings, its portico and its palm tree decorations had the same measurements as those of the gate facing east. Seven steps led up to it, with its portico opposite them; it had palm tree decorations on the faces of the projecting walls on each side. (Ezekiel, 40:22-26)

Make pomegranates of blue, purple and scarlet yarn around the hem of the robe, with gold bells between them. (Exodus, 28:33)

Decorative Gold Objects

The lampstands of pure gold with their lamps, to burn in front of the inmost room as prescribed; the gold floral work and lamps and tongs. They were solid gold. The pure gold wick trimmers, sprinkling bowls, dishes and censers; and the gold doors... to the Most Holy Place. (2 Chronicles, 4:20-22)

And they made from pure gold the articles for the table—its plates and dishes and bowls and its pitchers for the pouring out of drink offerings. They made the lampstand of pure gold and hammered it out, base and shaft; its flowerlike cups, buds and blossoms were of one piece with it. (Exodus, 37:16-17)

Solomon also made all the furnishings that were in the Lord's house: the golden altar; the golden table...; the lampstands of pure gold (five on the right and five on the left, in front of the innermost room the gold floral work and lamps and tongs; the pure gold basins, wick trimmers, sprinkling bowls, dishes and censers; and the gold sockets for the doors of the innermost room, the Most Holy Place... (1 Kings, 7:48-50)

And he made the ten candlesticks of gold according to the ordinance concerning them; and he set them in the temple, five on the right hand, and five on the left. He made also ten tables ... five on the right side, and five on the left. And he made a hundred basins of gold. (2 Chronicles, 4:7-8)

You shall make settings of gold, and two chains of pure gold; you make them like cords shall, of braided work: and you shall put the braided chains on the settings. (Exodus, 28:13-14)

All King Solomon's goblets were gold, and all the household articles in the Palace of the Forest of Lebanon were pure gold. Nothing was made of silver... (1 Kings, 10:21)

The buds and branches shall all be of one piece with the lampstand, hammered out of pure gold. Then make its seven lamps and set them up on it so that they light the space in front of it. Its wick trimmers and trays are to be of pure gold. A talent 2 of pure gold is to be used for the lampstand and all these accessories. (Exodus, 25:36-39)

Have them make a chest of acacia wood—two and a half cubits long, a cubit and a half wide, and a cubit and a half high. Overlay it with pure gold, both inside and out, and make a gold molding around it. (Exodus, 25:10-11)

And make its plates and dishes of pure gold, as well as its pitchers and bowls for the pouring out of offerings. (Exodus, 25:29)

Make a lampstand of pure gold... base and shaft... The buds and branches shall all be of one piece with the lampstand, hammered out of pure gold... Its wick trimmers and trays are to be of pure gold. A talent of pure gold is to be used for the lampstand and all these accessories. (Exodus, 25:31-39)

For the breastpiece make braided chains of pure gold. Make two gold rings for it and fasten them to two corners of the breastpiece. Fasten the two gold chains to the rings at the corners of the breastpiece. (Exodus, 28:22-24)

And they made bells of pure gold and attached them around the hem between the pomegranates. The bells and pomegranates alternated around the hem of the robe to be worn for ministering, as the Lord commanded Moses. (Exodus, 39:25-26)

They made the lampstand of pure gold and hammered it out, base and shaft; its flowerlike cups, buds and blossoms were of one piece with it... The buds and the branches were all of one piece with the lampstand, hammered out of pure gold. They made its seven lamps, as well as its wick trimmers and trays, of pure gold. They made the lampstand and all its accessories from one talent of pure gold. (Exodus, 37:17-24)

Cast four gold rings for it and fasten them to its four feet, with two rings on one side and two rings on the other. (Exodus, 25:12)

Then make fifty gold clasps and use them to fasten the curtains together so that the tabernacle is a unit. (Exodus, 26:6)

You welcomed him with rich blessings and placed a crown of pure gold on his head. (Psalms, 21:3)

The Use of Silver

Hang it with gold hooks on four posts of acacia wood overlaid with gold and standing on four silver bases. (Exodus, 26:32)

With twenty posts and twenty bronze bases and with silver hooks and bands on the posts. (Exodus, 27:10)

All the posts around the courtyard are to have silver bands and hooks, and bronze bases. (Exodus, 27:17)

With twenty posts and twenty bronze bases, and with silver hooks and bands on the posts. (Exodus, 38:10)

The north side was also a hundred cubits long and had twenty posts and twenty bronze bases, with silver hooks and bands on the posts. The west end was fifty cubits wide and had curtains, with ten posts and ten bases, with silver hooks and bands on the posts. (Exodus, 38:11-12)

Thick Beams

And he made the porch of pillars: the length thereof was fifty cubits, and the breadth thereof thirty cubits; and a porch before them; and pillars and thick beams before them. (1 Kings, 7:6)

... There were thick beams of wood upon the face of the porch without. And there were narrow windows and palm-trees on the one side and on the other side, on the sides of the porch; there were also the brackets of the house, and the thick beams. (Ezekiel, 41:25-26)

Decorated Baths

He made the Sea of cast metal, circular in shape, measuring ten cubits from rim to rim and five cubits high. It took a line of thirty cubits to measure around it. Below the rim, gourds encircled it—ten to a cubit. The gourds were cast in two rows in one piece with the Sea. The Sea stood on twelve bulls, three facing north, three facing west, three facing south and three facing east. The Sea rested on top of them, and their hindquarters were toward the center. It was a handbreadth in thickness, and its rim was like the rim of a cup, like a lily blossom. It held two thousand baths. (1 Kings, 7:23-26)

The Sea and the twelve bulls under it; the pots, shovels and sprinkling bowls. All these objects that Huram made for King Solomon for the house of the Lord were of burnished bronze. (1 Kings, 7:44-45)

He made the Sea of cast metal, circular in shape, measuring ten cubits from rim to rim and five cubits high. It took a line of thirty cubits to measure around it. Below the rim, figures of bulls encircled it—ten to a cubit. The bulls were cast in two rows in one piece with the Sea. The Sea stood on twelve bulls, three facing north, three facing west, three facing south and three facing east. The Sea rested on top of them, and their hindquarters were toward the center. It was a handbreadth in thickness, and its rim was like the rim of a cup, like a lily blossom. It held three thousand baths. (2 Chronicles, 4:2-5)

I made reservoirs to water groves of flourishing trees. (Ecclesiastes, 2:6)

Windows

And for the house he made windows of narrow lights. (1 Kings 6:4)

Its windows were placed high in sets of three, facing each other. All the doorways had rectangular frames; they were in the front part in sets of three, facing each other. (1 Kings, 7:4-5)

The alcoves and the projecting walls inside the gateway were surmounted by narrow parapet openings all around, as was the portico; the openings all around faced inward. The faces of the projecting walls were decorated with palm trees. (Ezekiel, 40:16)

As well as the thresholds and the narrow windows and galleries around the three of them—everything beyond and including the threshold was covered with wood. And the windows were covered. On the sidewalls of the portico were narrow windows with palm trees carved on each side. (Ezekiel, 41:16,26)

Ivory Decorations

Then the king made a great throne inlaid with ivory and overlaid with pure gold. The throne had six steps, and a footstool of gold was attached to it. On both sides of the seat were armrests, with a lion standing beside each of them. Twelve lions stood on the six steps, one at either end of each step. Nothing like it had ever been made for any other kingdom. (2 Chronicles, 9:17-19)

Moreover the king made a great throne of ivory, and overlaid it with the finest gold. The throne had six steps, and its back had a rounded top. On both sides of the seat were armrests, with a lion standing beside each of them. Twelve lions stood on the six steps, one at either end of each step. Nothing like it had ever been made for any other kingdom. (1 Kings, 10:18-20)

Columns

He built the Palace of the Forest of Lebanon a hundred cubits long, fifty wide and thirty high, with four rows of cedar columns supporting trimmed cedar beams. It was roofed with cedar above the beams that rested on the columns—forty-five beams, fifteen to a row... He made a colonnade fifty cubits long and thirty wide. In front of it was a portico, and in front of that were pillars and an overhanging roof. (1 Kings, 7:2-6)

 

He cast two bronze pillars, each eighteen cubits high and twelve cubits around, by line. He also made two capitals of cast bronze to set on the tops of the pillars; each capital was five cubits high. A network of interwoven chains festooned the capitals on top of the pillars, seven for each capital. He made pomegranates in two rows encircling each network to decorate the capitals on top of the pillars. He did the same for each capital. The capitals on top of the pillars in the portico were in the shape of lilies, four cubits high. On the capitals of both pillars, above the bowl-shaped part next to the network, were the two hundred pomegranates in rows all around. (1 Kings, 7:15-20)

The garden had hangings of white and blue linen, fastened with cords of white linen and purple material to silver rings on marble pillars. There were couches of gold and silver on a mosaic pavement of porphyry, marble, mother-of-pearl and other costly stones. (Esther, 1:6)

The two pillars; the two bowl-shaped capitals on top of the pillars; the two sets of network decorating the two bowl-shaped capitals on top of the pillars; the four hundred pomegranates for the two sets of network; two rows of pomegranates for each network, decorating the bowl-shaped capitals on top of the pillars... were of burnished bronze. (1 Kings, 7:41-42, 45)

Also he made before the house two pillars of thirty-five cubits high, and the capital that was on the top of each of them was five cubits. He made interwoven chains and put them on top of the pillars. He also made a hundred pomegranates and attached them to the chains. (2 Chronicles, 3:15-16)

... They carried all the bronze to Babylon. The pots also, and the shovels, and the snuffers, and the basins, and the spoons, and all the vessels of brass with which they ministered, took they away... The bronze from the two pillars, the Sea and the twelve bronze bulls under it, and the movable stands, which King Solomon had made in the house of the Lord, was more than could be weighed. Each of the pillars was eighteen cubits high and twelve cubits in circumference; each was four fingers thick, and hollow. The bronze capital on top of the one pillar was five cubits high and was decorated with a network and pomegranates of bronze all around. The other pillar, with its pomegranates, was similar. There were ninety-six pomegranates on the sides; the total number of pomegranates above the surrounding network was a hundred. (Jeremiah 52:17-23)

The portico was twenty cubits wide, and twelve cubits from front to back. It was reached by a flight of stairs, and there were pillars on each side of the jambs. (Ezekiel, 40:49)

Courtyards

Make a courtyard for the tabernacle. The south side shall be a hundred cubits long and is to have curtains of finely twisted linen. (Exodus, 27:9)

The great courtyard was surrounded by a wall of three courses of dressed stone and one course of trimmed cedar beams... (1 Kings, 7:12)

He made the courtyard of the priests, and the large court and the doors for the court, and overlaid the doors with bronze. (2 Chronicles, 4:9)

For the entrance to the courtyard, provide a curtain twenty cubits long, of blue, purple and scarlet yarn and finely twisted linen—the work of an embroiderer—with four posts and four bases. All the posts around the courtyard are to have silver bands and hooks, and bronze bases. The courtyard shall be a hundred cubits long and fifty cubits wide, with curtains of finely twisted linen five cubits high, and with bronze bases. All the other articles used in the service of the tabernacle, whatever their function, including all the tent pegs for it and those for the courtyard, are to be of bronze. (Exodus, 27:16-19)

Curtains

For the entrance to the tent make a curtain of blue, purple and scarlet yarn and finely twisted linen—the work of an embroiderer. Make gold hooks for this curtain and five posts of acacia wood overlaid with gold. And cast five bronze bases for them. (Exodus, 26:36-37)

... curtains of finely twisted linen and blue, purple and scarlet yarn... worked into them by a skilled craftsman. All the curtains are to be the same size—twenty-eight cubits long and four cubits wide. Join five of the curtains together, and do the same with the other five. Make loops of blue material along the edge of the end curtain in one set, and do the same with the end curtain in the other set. (Exodus, 26:1-4)

Make a curtain of blue, purple and scarlet yarn and finely twisted linen... worked into it by a skilled craftsman. Hang it with gold hooks on four posts of acacia wood overlaid with gold... (Exodus, 26:31-32)

Make a courtyard for the tabernacle. The south side shall be a hundred cubits long and is to have curtains of finely twisted linen, with twenty posts and twenty bronze bases and with silver hooks and bands on the posts. The north side shall also be a hundred cubits long and is to have curtains, with twenty posts and twenty bronze bases and with silver hooks and bands on the posts... For the entrance to the courtyard, provide a curtain twenty cubits long, of blue, purple and scarlet yarn and finely twisted linen—the work of an embroiderer—with four posts and four bases...The courtyard shall be a hundred cubits long and fifty cubits wide, with curtains of finely twisted linen five cubits high, and with bronze bases. (Exodus, 27:9-18)

All the skilled men among the workmen made the tabernacle with ten curtains of finely twisted linen and blue, purple and scarlet yarn... worked into them by a skilled craftsman. All the curtains were the same size—twenty-eight cubits long and four cubits wide. They joined five of the curtains together and did the same with the other five. Then they made loops of blue material along the edge of the end curtain in one set, and the same was done with the end curtain in the other set... Then they made fifty gold clasps and used them to fasten the two sets of curtains together so that the tabernacle was a unit. (Exodus, 36:8-13)

They made the curtain of blue, purple and scarlet yarn and finely twisted linen... worked into it by a skilled craftsman. They made four posts of acacia wood for it and overlaid them with gold. They made gold hooks for them and cast their four silver bases. For the entrance to the tent they made a curtain of blue, purple and scarlet yarn and finely twisted linen—the work of an embroiderer; and they made five posts with hooks for them. They overlaid the tops of the posts and their bands with gold and made their five bases of bronze. (Exodus, 36:35-38)

Next they made the courtyard. The south side was a hundred cubits long and had curtains of finely twisted linen, with twenty posts and twenty bronze bases, and with silver hooks and bands on the posts... All the curtains around the courtyard were of finely twisted linen... The curtain for the entrance to the courtyard was of blue, purple and scarlet yarn and finely twisted linen—the work of an embroiderer. It was twenty cubits long and, like the curtains of the courtyard, five cubits high. (Exodus, 38:9-18)

Embroidered Garments

Tell all the skilled men to whom I have given wisdom in such matters that they are to make garments for Aaron... These are the garments they are to make: a breastpiece, an ephod 3, a robe, a woven tunic, a turban and a sash... Have them use gold, and blue, purple and scarlet yarn, and fine linen. (Exodus, 28:3-5)

For Aaron and his sons, they made tunics of fine linen—the work of a weaver- and the turban of fine linen, the linen headbands and the trousers of finely twisted linen. The sash was of finely twisted linen and blue, purple and scarlet yarn—the work of an embroiderer—as the Lord commanded Moses. (Exodus, 39:27-29)

Fashion a breastpiece for making decisions—the work of a skilled craftsman. Make it like the ephod: of gold, and of blue, purple and scarlet yarn, and of finely twisted linen... Then mount four rows of precious stones on it. In the first row there shall be a ruby, a topaz and a beryl; in the second row a turquoise, a sapphire and an emerald; in the third row a jacinth, an agate and an amethyst; in the fourth row a chrysolite, an onyx and a jasper. Mount them in gold filigree settings. (Exodus, 28:15-20)

For the breastpiece make braided chains of pure gold, like a rope. Make two gold rings for it and fasten them to two corners of the breastpiece. Fasten the two gold chains to the rings at the corners of the breastpiece. (Exodus, 28:22-24)

Make the robe of the ephod entirely of blue cloth... Make pomegranates of blue, purple and scarlet yarn around the hem of the robe, with gold bells between them. The gold bells and the pomegranates are to alternate around the hem of the robe. (Exodus, 28:31-34)

Weave the tunic of fine linen and make the turban of fine linen. The sash is to be the work of an embroiderer. (Exodus, 28:39)

... They also made sacred garments for Aaron, as the Lord commanded Moses. They made the ephod of gold, and of blue, purple and scarlet yarn, and of finely twisted linen. (Exodus, 39:1-2)

They hammered out thin sheets of gold and cut strands to be worked into the blue, purple and scarlet yarn and fine linen—the work of a skilled craftsman. They made shoulder pieces for the ephod, which were attached to two of its corners, so it could be fastened. Its skillfully woven waistband was like it—of one piece with the ephod and made with gold, and with blue, purple and scarlet yarn, and with finely twisted linen, as the Lord commanded Moses. (Exodus, 39:3-5)

Decoration with Precious Stones

With all my resources I have provided for the house of my God—gold for the gold work, silver for the silver, bronze for the bronze, iron for the iron and wood for the wood, as well as onyx for the settings, turquoise, stones of various colors, and all kinds of fine stone and marble—all of these in large quantities. (1 Chronicles, 29:2)

He adorned the house with precious stones... (2 Chronicles, 3:6)

... There were couches of gold and silver on a mosaic pavement of porphyry, marble, mother-of-pearl and other costly stones. (Esther, 1:6)

They fashioned the breastpiece—the work of a skilled craftsman. They made it like the ephod: of gold, and of blue, purple and scarlet yarn, and of finely twisted linen. It was square—a span long and a span wide—and folded double. Then they mounted four rows of precious stones on it. In the first row there was a ruby, a topaz and a beryl; in the second row a turquoise, a sapphire and an emerald; in the third row a jacinth, an agate and an amethyst; in the fourth row a chrysolite, an onyx and a jasper. They were mounted in gold filigree settings. There were twelve stones... (Exodus, 39:8-14)

... Every precious stone adorned you: ruby, topaz and emerald, chrysolite, onyx and jasper, sapphire, turquoise and beryl. Your settings and mountings were made of gold; on the day you were created they were prepared. (Ezekiel, 28:13)

... onyx stones and other gems to be mounted on the... breastpiece. (Exodus, 25:7)

Then mount four rows of precious stones on it. In the first row there shall be a ruby, a topaz and a beryl; in the second row a turquoise, a sapphire and an emerald; in the third row a jacinth, an agate and an amethyst; in the fourth row a chrysolite, an onyx and a jasper. Mount them in gold filigree settings. There are to be twelve stones... (Exodus, 28.17-21)

An Understanding of Art and Beauty as a Blessing from God

Then the Lord said to Moses, "... I have filled him with the Spirit of God, with skill, ability and knowledge in all kinds of crafts—to make artistic designs for work in gold, silver and bronze, to cut and set stones, to work in wood, and to engage in all kinds of craftsmanship... Also I have given skill to all the craftsmen to make everything I have commanded you." (Exodus, 31:1-6)

Then Moses said to the Israelites, See, the Lord... has filled him with the Spirit of God, with skill, ability and knowledge in all kinds of crafts— to make artistic designs for work in gold, silver and bronze, to cut and set stones, to work in wood and to engage in all kinds of artistic craftsmanship. And He has given... the ability to teach others. He has filled them with skill to do all kinds of work as craftsmen, designers, embroiderers in blue, purple and scarlet yarn and fine linen, and weavers—all of them master craftsmen and designers. (Exodus, 35:30-35)

DİPNOTLAR

1. 1 cubit = 45.72 centimeters.

2. 1 talent = 30 kgs. (66 pounds).

3.Ephod: A sleeveless garment

 

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