Ignorant people often resort to demagogy to justify themselves. This is a method by which they maintain their rights, or prestige, by using emotional, dishonest or oblique arguments rather than reason. Apart from these ploys, the way people conduct themselves is also an efficient element of demagogy. Interrupting, shouting and telling lies are well-known methods of demagogy. Disbelievers demonstrate a remarkable capacity for this 'art'. To justify their point of view or to establish superiority over others, they resort to inconceivable methods. The main purpose of all these efforts is to oppose the truth. They make all these efforts to justify themselves and thereby to find a pretext to ease their remorse.
This, however, is not a method developed by the individuals themselves. As in many other issues, Satan guides them. The statement of Satan in the following verses shows that Satan was the first demagogue in history.
(God) said: "O Iblis! What prevents you from prostrating yourself to one whom I have created with My own hands? Are you haughty? Or are you one of the high (and mighty) ones?" He replied : "I am better than him. You created me from fire, while him You created from clay." He said: "Go forth from hence, for you are outcast." (Surah Sad: 75-77)
When he was told to prostrate himself before Adam, Satan arrogantly refused, and offered wicked explanations. This was typical demagogy; his pretext for not following the command of God is stated in the following statement of Satan: "You created me from fire, while you created him from clay." However his main purpose is to revolt against God. The comparison between fire and clay is only a pretext.
The attitude of ignorant people is exactly the same. They first decide to disobey and then find excuses for their disobedience. At this point, they do what Satan did and employ the various methods of demagogy to cover their dishonesty and to comfort themselves.
Satan indoctrinates them by stealth and constantly whispers methods of demagogy to their souls. Meanwhile, the individual struggles to choose between the voice of his common sense whispering the truth and the voice of his soul, that speaks for Satan. In this way, Satan approaches man in all circumstances and tempts him.
That is why for ages people all around the world employ exactly the same tactics and methods against religion. This fact is underlined in the Qur'an:
But they say what the ancients said before them. (Surah al-Mumenoon: 81)
However, one point deserves mention here: Satan is a being completely under the control of God like all other creatures, such as the jinns, the angels and human beings. Contrary to the commonly held view, Satan is not a separate being, apart from and independent of God. He is in the service of God to test man in this world. This fact is explained in the following verse:
He said: Then you are of those reprieved till The Appointed Day. He said: My Lord! Because You have sent me astray, I shall truly make pleasant the path of error for them on the earth, and shall mislead them every one. Save such of them as are Your perfectly devoted slaves. He said: This is a right course incumbent upon Me. As for My slaves, you have no power over any of them, save such of the sinners as follow you. (Surah al-Hijr: 36-42)